Cardiovascular & Metabolic disease (CVMD)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of human death and disability worldwide, as well as an increasing problem in domestic animals. Obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome are very much related to cardiovascular events and these diseases are often grouped under CVMD. Animal models are being developed for preclinical research and IDEXX BioAnalytics has a battery of biomarkers to help characterize both companion animals and such models:

The myocardial tissue-specific biomarker cardiac troponin helps diagnose myocardial infarction (MI) in the early hours following symptoms. Cardiac troponin I (cTn I) is a sensitive and specific serum marker of myocardial injury. The troponin concentration can be thought of as a quantitative measure of the degree of injury sustained by the heart. IDEXX BioAnalytics offers us-cTn I, the ultrasensitive method for cardiac Troponin I detection. 

Nt-proBNP is a natriuretic peptide that predicts heart failure. As heart disease progresses, the chambers become more stretched and BNP is released in greater quantities. Cardiopet® proBNP measures Nt-proBNP, allowing you to quantitatively track the progression of the disease.

Creatine Kinase MB (CK-MB), like cTn I, also indicates the presence of injury-associated necrosis of myocardial cells. 

Inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and uric acid predict MI and death. There is increasing evidence that Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a small glycoprotein secreted by neutrophils, may be involved in inflammatory processes in cardiovascular disease. NGAL regulates the enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which plays a role in plaque instability in atherosclerosis. Current research suggests that NGAL may modulate inflammation and promote the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Although more evidence needs to be collected, recent studies showed that NGAL is associated with increased risk of long-term coronary heart disease events.

Other classical parameters that also need monitoring are glucose, Triglycerides (TGs) and cholesterol, well known to be related to the risk of cardiovascular events. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is often measured to determine the diabetic stage of the animal: a high HbA1c value means that the animal has too much sugar in blood. IDEXX BioAnalytics is currently developing this test for dogs and rodents.

In a recent study, a significant association between T2D and coagulation parameters was reported. Increased plasma levels of PT and APTT were observed, which are consistent with abnormal coagulation mechanisms and may be interpreted as a tendency for bleeding and cardiovascular disorders.

*In bold, IDEXX BioAnalytics tests and services available

 
 

*In bold, IDEXX BioAnalytics tests and services available